Islam / Caliph / Abbasids /
(787-813) Caliph of Islam 809-813, belonging to the Abbasid Dynasty.
al-Amin came to mean little for the empire, both internally and in terms of territorial gains or consolidations. Most of his time was spent fighting a civil war (the 4th in Muslim history) against his brother, al-Ma'mun. The war ended with al-Amin being beheaded.
787 April: Born as son of Harun ar-Rashid.
809: With the death of his father, al-Amin becomes new caliph, instead of his older half-brother al-Ma'mun. This happens because his mother was of royal ancestry, while al-Ma'mun's mother was a Persian slave.
810: al-Amin appoints his son Musa as heir. This results in a bloody war between al-Amin and al-Ma'mun.
812: al-Amin and his forces are besieged in Baghdad by al-Ma'mun's troops.
813 September 24 or 25: Is executed by al-Ma'mun's troops, but against his brother's expressed will.