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Anglo-Ottoman Convention of 1913

Short-lived agreement signed in July 1913 between the Ottoman sultan Muhammad 6 and the British over several issues. The issue over the status of Kuwait was the only surviving result, the utcome being formal independence for Kuwait.
According to the agreement, Shaykh Mubarak 1 as-Sabah, who was a qaimmaqam under the Ottomans, was given autonomy over the city of Kuwait and the hinterlands. These lands were mainly uninhabited desert, and all areas within a radius of 40 miles (= 103 km) came under the shaykh. This included the islands of Warda, Bubiyan, Mashian, Failakah, Auhah and Kabbar.
Furthermore, Mubarak was authorized to collect tributes from tribes within a radius of 140 miles (equals 362 km) beyond this.
But when World War 1 broke out in June 1914, and the Ottomans and the British became enemies of war, the convention was declared void and empty. The result was that Britain declared Kuwait an independent shaykhdom under British protection.

By Tore Kjeilen