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Algerian War 1954-1962 /
Evian Accords

Algerian and French negotiators at Evian, 1962.
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Algerian and French negotiators at Evian, 1962.

For Algeria, at the end of the Algerian War, the agreement signed March 18, 1962 between France and the FLN, which ended the war and granted Muslim independence for Algeria.
Before the final negotiations, which lasted 12 days, several earlier rounds of negotations had been carried out. The talks were done in the French town of Évian-les-Bains, very close to Switzerland; allowing security to the Algerian participants.
The talks proved effective, largely because the French negotiators had more or less received a mandate of acheiving an agreement, wherein French demands were promoted willing to compromise.
The final agreement was 93 pages long, and dealt with a wide variety of questions. Central was its acceptance that the Muslim majority in Algeria would form a sovereign state. In short, the agreement was more or less in full accordance with the initial Algerian demands.
The agreements detailed the implementation of the cease-fire, release of all prisoners, it recognized the full soverignty of Algeria according to the referendum of January 8, 1961. Citizens defined as "French" would have a 3 year period of protection, after which they either would have to choose Algerian citizenship, or stay in Algeria as foreigners. Algerian workers in France were permitted to stay, and immigration from Algeria would continue unhindered.
Algeria also were secured access to technical assistance and financial aid from the French government, in exchange of continued French control over the oil industry. Algeria would remain part of the Franc zone.
The French army was allowed to remain in Algeria for 12 months with 80,000 troops, which also were inteded to secure the transition period of the new state structures. France was sucred the lease of the naval base Mers el-Kebir for 15 years.
Little of the French demands regarding the rights of the Christians and Jews of Algeria survived into the final document, they were not allowed dual nationality. Also, France lost its demands on Sahara (which had no historical ties with northern Algeria).

1962 March 7: A second conference at Evian begins, with 9 Muslim Algerian representatives, headed by Krim Belkacem, and 11 representatives for France, headed by Louis Joxe.
March 18: The Evian Accords are signed.
— OAS performs military and terrorist attacks in opposition to the Evian Accords.
Summer: Exodus of Christians and Jews from Algeria, facing a situation where the nominal protection proves empty facing Muslim mobs. See North African Christian and Jewish Cleansings.

By Tore Kjeilen