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1. Orientations
a. Figures
2. Koran
3. Theology
4. Concept of divine
5. Sharia
6. Muhammad
7. Cult and Festivals
8. Mecca
9. Cultic personalities
10. Caliph
11. Structures
12. Popular religion
13. Others
14. Calendar

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Islam / Dhimmi /
Arabic: 'al-jizya
Other spelling: djizya

In Islam, the tax imposed on non-Mulims of tolerated religions living in a society governed by Muslim ruler(s).
The tolerated groups were in theory Christians and Jews, but in pracice, other groups could received the status as tolerated non-Muslims (see dhimmi). The Harranians of northern Mesopotamia came to be defined as "Sabians", a Koranic term used for a third group of Ahl al-Kitab, but never identified.
The jizya tax was understood as a special tax paid to the Muslim ruler for his protection. Its exact level could vary from region to region, as well as over time. At first, the jizya was set to 1 dinar (equalling 12 dirhams), which later on was changed into the minimum payment. The tax on the rich was set at 4 dinars (48 dirhams).
Those refusing to pay jizya could be punished with imprisonment.
The jizya tax was a very important part of the state revenues through much of Muslim history. By the fact that non-Muslims in many cases could avoid the tax by converting into Islam, both helped promote the growth of Islam, but also caused rulers to try to hinder the conversion into Islam. There are examples of converts having to continue paying jizya.
Jizya was paid by men only, and only with sufficient funds. Many were exempted, like blind, crippled, mentally retarded and the old.
Some Christian groups, during the early times of Islam, were exempted from paying jizya: the Banu Tabligh and Christians of Najran (today Saudi Arabia).
At a later stage, another tax for non-Mulims was introduced, called kharaj. This was taxation of yield from land.

Koran sura 9: Repentance
29 Fight those who believe not in God and in the last day, and who forbid not what God and His apostle have forbidden, and who do not practice the religion of truth from amongst those to whom the Book has been brought, until they pay the tribute [jizya] by their hands and be as little ones.

For the preparation of Contents, no contemporary examples of jizya are found. Still, oil-rich countries have different taxation systems for nationals (who are Muslims) and expats (where there is a large percentage of non-Muslims). But this cannot be equated to jizya, since the dhimmis paying jizya were considered nationals, and the expats are considered foreigners.

By Tore Kjeilen