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Persia / Qajar Dynasty /
Mozaffar ad-Din
Persian: mozaffar ed-dīn qājār
Other spellings:Mozaffar-e-Din

(1853-1907) Persian shah, 5th ruler of the Qajar Dynasty 1896-1907, altogether 11 years.
Mozaffar was a moderate ruler, but weak and ineffective. Accounts present him as mainly concerned with the pleasures of life.
Still, it must be stressed that the Persia he inherited was near bankrupt. He did attempt reforms, but the financial situation was very stressed, providing him little room for action and administrative reform.
He added to the state deficit by borrowing money from foreign banks to finance his an extravagant life style, as well as selling concessions that provided foreign interests a monopolistic control of many Persian industries and markets.
In exchange for economical aid, Russian influence on the state increased.
He is remembered for having started Iranian cinema, following his visit to Paris, France.

1853 March 25: Born as son of Persian ruler, Nasser ad-Din.
1896 May 1: Nasser ad-Din is assassinated, Mozaffar becomes new shah.
1906 January: Long time protests by the religious elite and the rich merchant class culminates, forcing Mozaffar to promise to establish a House of Justice, or consultative assembly.
August: Mozaffar promises to allow a formal constitution.
October: A constitution is formulated by an elected assembly, defining limited royal power, an elected parliament, and a government chosen by the parliament.
December 30: The constitution is signed by Mozaffar.
1907 January 7: Mozaffar dies of a heart attack, and is succeeded by his son, Mohammad Ali.

By Tore Kjeilen