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Ancient Egypt
1. Introduction
2. People
3. Life styles
4. Culture
5. Education and Science
6. Society
7. Economy
8. Government
9. Cities and Villages
10. Language
11. Religion
12. Kings / periods
13. History
14. Map



























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Open map of Ancient EgyptAncient Egypt /
Pharaoh
Arabic: far¢ūn



King Merenre 1

King Nectanebo 1

King of ancient Egypt. The term 'pharaoh' was originally used for the place where the king resided, and is to be translated with "great house". Gradually the term came to be used for the king himself — this probably happened somewhere between 1400-900 BCE. However, 'Pharaoh' never become part of the official title of the king.
The actual designation for the king of Ancient Egypt was "nesw-bit", combining two dimensions of the king. "Nesw" reflected his divine dimensions, or even the unchanging kingship. "Bit" reflected the individual who was the king. The 1st Dynasty king, Den, of the 30th century was the first to use "nesw-bit."
The Pharaoh was considered as the son of the god Osiris, as Horus, and therefore himself a divine being. This gave strength to the institution as he was the protector of maat, the universal ethical principle. This institution changed over time. During the period of the New Kingdom, there was a clear distinction between divine kingship, and the Pharaoh himself.
Through long periods of Egyptian history, Pharaoh is described as an institution, not as an individual. The ideal Pharaoh was linked to peace and stability. Pharaohs that were successful in a military sense, deviated much from this.

Dynasties and Rulers

Predynastic Period ca. 3500-3150 BCE
Menes
Early Dynastic Period (0-2nd Dynasty) ca. 3150-2686
0th Dynasty ca. 3150-3100
Scorpion
1st Dynasty ca. 3100-2890
Narmer; Aha; Djer; Djet; Queen Merneith; Den; Anedjib; Semerkhet; Qa'a
2nd Dynasty 2890-2686
Hotepsekhemwy; Raneb; Nynetjer; Weneg; Sened; Peribsen; Khasekhemwy
Old kingdom (3rd-6th Dynasty) 2686-2181
3rd Dynasty 2681-2613
Sanakhte 2686-2667
Zoser 2667-2648
Sekhemkhet 2648-2640
Khaba 2640-2637
Huni 2637-2613
4th Dynasty 2613-2498
Snefru 2613-2589
Khufu (Cheops) 2589-2566
Redjedef 2566-2558
Khafre 2558-2532
Menkaure 2532-2503
Shepseskaf 2503-2498
5th Dynasty 2498-2345
Userkaf 2498-2491
Sahure 2491-2475
Neferirkare 2475-2455
Shepseskare 2455-2448
Raneferef 2448-2445
Nyuserre 2445-2421
Menkauher 2421-2414
Djedkare 2414-2375
Unas 2375-2345
6th Dynasty 2345-2181
Teti 2345-2323
Userkare 2323-2321
Pepi 1 2321-2287
Merenre 1 2287-2278
Pepi 2 2278-2184
Merenre 2 and Queen Nitiqrit 2184-2181
First Intermediate Period (7th-11th Dynasty) 2181-2055
7th Dynasty 2181-2173
8th Dynasty 2173-2160
9th Dynasty (Herakleopolis) 2160-2130
10th Dynasty (Herakleopolis) 2130-2025
11th Dynasty (Thebes) 2125-2055
Mentuhotep 1 2125
Intef 1 2125-2112
Intef 2 2112-2063
Intef 3 2063-2055
Middle kingdom (11th- 14th Dynasty) 2055-1650
11th Dynasty continues (all of Egypt) 2055-1985
Mentuhotep 2 2055-2004
Mentuhotep 3 2004-1992
Mentuhotep 4 1992-1985
12th Dynasty 1985-1773
Amenemhet 1 1985-1956
Sesostris 1 1956-1911
Amenemhet 2 1911-1877
Sesostris 2 1877-1870
Sesostris 3 1870-1831
Amenemhet 3 1831-1786
Amenemhet 4 1786-1777
Queen Sobekneferu 1777-1773
13th Dynasty 1773-1650
Wegaf 1773-1769
Ameny Intef 4 1769-1760
Hor Around 1760
Sobekhotep 2 Around 1750
Khendjer Around 1747
Sobekhotep 3 Around 1745
Neferhotep 1 1741-1730
Sobekhotep 4 1730-1720
Ay ?
Neferhotep 2 ?
14th Dynasty (parallell to 13th) 1773-1650
Second Intermediate period
(15th-17th Dynasty)
1650-1550
15th Dynasty (Hyksos) 1650-1550
Salitis; Khyan; Apepi; Khamudi
16th Dynasty(vassals of the Hyksos) 1650-1580
17th Dynasty 1580-1550
Rahotep; Sobekemsaf 1; Intef 6; Intef 7; Intef 8; Sobekemsaf 2; Siamun; Taa
Kamose 1555-1550
New kingdom (18th-20th Dynasty) 1550-1069
18th Dynasty 1550-1295
Ahmose 1 1550-1525
Amenophis 1 1525-1504
Tuthmosis 1 1504-1492
Tuthmosis 2 1492-1479
Tuthmosis 3 1479-1425
Queen Hatshepsut 1473-1458
Amenophis 2 1427-1400
Tuthmosis 4 1400-1390
Amenophis 3 1390-1352
Akhenaten (Amenophis 4) 1352-1336
Smenkhkare 1338-1336
Tutankhamon 1336-1327
Ay 1327-1323
Horemheb 1323-1295
19th Dynasty 1295-1186
Ramses 1 1295-1294
Seti 1 1294-1279
Ramses 2 1279-1213
Merneptah 1213-1203
Amenmesse 1203-1200?
Seti 2 1200-1194
Siptah 1194-1188
Queen Tawsret 1188-1186
20th Dynasty 1186-1069
Setnakht 1186-1184
Ramses 3 1184-1153
Ramses 4 1153-1147
Ramses 5 1147-1143
Ramses 6 1143-1136
Ramses 7 1136-1129
Ramses 8 1129-1126
Ramses 9 1126-1108
Ramses 10 1108-1099
Ramses 11 1099-1069
Third Intermediate Period (21st-25th Dynasty) 1069-664
21th Dynasty 1069-945
22nd Dynasty 945-715
23rd Dynasty (Libyan) 818-715
24th Dynasty (Libyan) 727-715
25th Dynasty (Cushite) 747-656
Assyrian control 671-655
Late period (26th-31st Dynasty) 664-332
26th Dynasty 664-525
27th Dynasty (Persian domination) 525-404
28th Dynasty 404-399
29th Dynasty 399-380
30th Dynasty 380-343
31th Dynasty (Persian domination) 343-332
Ptolemaic period 332-30
Mecedonian dynasty 332-305
Alexander the Great 332-323
Philip Arrhiadeus 323-317
Alexander 4 317-305
Ptolemaic dynasty 305-30
Ptolemy 1 Soter 1 305-285
Ptolemy 2 Philadelphus 285-246
Ptolemy 3 Euergetes 1 246-221
Ptolemy 4 Philopator 221-205
Ptolemy 5 Epiphanes 205-180
Ptolemy 6 Philometor 181-145
Ptolemy 7 Neos Philopator 145
Ptolemy 8 Euergetes 2 145-116
Ptolemy 9 Soter 2 116-107
Ptolemy 10 Alexander 1 108-88
Ptolemy 9 Soter 2 88-80
Ptolemy 11 Alexander 2 80
Ptolemy 12 Neos Dionysios 80-51
Cleopatra 7 Philopator 51-30
Ptolemy 13 51-47
Ptolemy 14 47-44
Ptolemy 15 Caesarion 44-30
Roman province 30 BCE-323 CE
Byzantine province 323-642
Arab conquest 642






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By Tore Kjeilen