Ottoman Empire / Rulers /
(1326?-1389) Ottoman bey 1360-1389. Murad is often referred to as sultan, and even if he called himself "sultan", it was not until 1394 that title was officially introduced.
During his reign the empire saw expansions in both Anatolia and the Balkans. Equally important was the efforts put down in building a state system. During his reign, the systems of a military judge (kaziasker), commander-in-chief (beylerbeyi) and chief minister (vizier) were developed. All these positions were given to persons outside the bey family.
During Murad's reign, also the devsirme system was started to be developed, together with the Janissary corps.
Around 1326: Born as son of bey Orhan.
1360: Following the death of bey Orhan, Murad succeeds as new bey of the Ottoman Empire.
1361: Conquers Edirne, which is soon turned into the effective capital of the empire, and more importantly, the staging point for the Ottoman expansion into Europe.
1366: Loses Gallipoli to a Christian crusade sent to rescue the Byzantines.
1367: Murad's forces reconquers Gallipoli.
1371: A coalition of south Serbian princes are crushed near the Maritsa river. The Macedonian towns of Dráma, Kavála and Sérrai comes under Ottoman control.
Another important victory comes at Samakow against a Bulgarian-Serbian coalition. Following these events, princes of north Serbia, Bulgaria as well as the Byzantine emperor becomes vassals under Murad.
1385: Conquers Sofia (today's capital of Bulgaria).
1386: Conquers Nis (in today's southern Yugoslavia).
A Turkmen coalition led by the Karaman is defeated at Konya.
1388: The Ottomans are stopped at Plocnik by Serbians and Bosnians.
1389: Murad and his son Bayezid has the Serbians and Bosnians defeated at the famous Battle of Kosovo. During the fights, Murad is killed by a Serbian noble who pretended that he defected to the Ottomans. Bayezid followed his father as bey.