as-Sabah, Jaber 3 bni Ahmad
jabar bni ahmad 'as-sabāh
(1926-2006) Emir of Kuwait (1977-2006), and son of Shaykh Ahmad 1.
The rule of Jaber has been one of dramatic events. There have been many internal battles over democratization of the society and press freedom. The economy has seen much instability, there have been demonstrations and assassination attempts on Jaber's life. But most dramatic was the invasion by Iraq in 1990, where Jaber was driven out of the country for a period of 7 months.
Even if Kuwait under Jaber is among the richest countries in the Arab world, and with least poverty, Jaber is not a popular leader. Kuwait's few democratic exercises have shown that a clear majority does not support his regime.
1926 June 29: Born in Kuwait as son of Shaykh Ahmad 1.
1966 May: Is appointed prime minister by Emir Sabah 3.
1978 January 1: With the death of Emir Sabah 3 on December 31, 1977 Jaber is appointed new Emir of Kuwait.
1979: Following the Islamic revolution in Iran, and demonstrations among the Shi'is of Kuwait, Jaber puts more restrictions on press freedom in Kuwait than before.
1980: Changes in the constitution, that allows for slightly more democracy.
1981 February: Elections for 50 seats in the National Assembly. None of the parties opposing Jaber won many seats (only the Islamists had some success with 6 seats).
1982 September: The stock exchange of Kuwait collapses, something that destroyed the image of Jaber's regime.
1985: Nationalists and Islamists win far more seats than in the last elections, proving growing dissatisfaction with Jaber's regime.
May 25: Attempt to assassinate Jaber, much as a reaction to his support of Iraq in the war against Iran.
July 3: Jaber dissolves the National Assembly, and imposes hard censorship on the press.
1988: Jaber introduces the National Council, which would be an advisory body without legislative powers, instead of restoring the National Assembly.
1990 June: Elections for the National Council are boycotted by the opposition.
August 3: After many talks between Kuwait and Iraq over a border dispute, Iraq invades and occupies Kuwait, and claims that is to become a part of Iraq. Jaber and his family escapes to Bahrain and later to Saudi Arabia. US$ 5 billion are given from Jaber's own funds to the military campaign to liberate Kuwait.
1991 March: Jaber can return to a liberated Kuwait, but without much intention of liberalizing Kuwaiti politics.
September: Jaber signs an agreement with USA, that allows them heavy military presence in Kuwait.
1992 October: Elections for the partly restored National Assmebly, give the opposition 31 of 50 seats.
1999: Proposes an amendment to the Election Law to allow women to elect and be elected, but it is rejected by the National Assembly.
2001: Suffers a cerebral haemorrhage, hurting his health for the remainder of his life.
2005: The law changes allowing women entering politics are reproposed, this time being accepted by the National Assembly.
2006 January 15: Dies, and is succeeded by Crown Prince Saad.