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1. Orientations
a. Figures
2. Koran
3. Theology
4. Concept of divine
5. Sharia
6. Muhammad
7. Cult and Festivals
8. Mecca
9. Cultic personalities
10. Caliph
11. Structures
12. Popular religion
13. Others
14. Calendar

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Islam / Cult and Festivals / Five Pillars
Arabic: shahāda

The creed of Islam, and one of the religion's Five Pillars. Shahada is best translated with 'testimony'.
Shahada is not only a testimony of ones belief, but also a legal testimony. "There is no god but God, and Muhammad is his messenger." Shi'is add "...and Ali is his friend."
This statement, so frequently used, is also very consciously used in connection with holy warfare, jihad. A Muslim dying while fighting jihad, is called shahīd (note the long 'i'-sound), which often is translated with 'martyr'.
A person performing Shahada in civil and legal sense, is called shāhid (note the long 'a'-sound), i.e. a term different for the one used for martyrs.

By Tore Kjeilen